Electrification & Vehicle Technology

Zero-emission mobility can be reached through various technologies. Each one comes with its own costs and infrastructure requirements.

Transforming the transport sector will succeed only if energy consumption can be reduced. Over the short and medium term, improvements in vehicle efficiency will suffice to do the job. But for long-term targets, alternative drivetrain technologies will be needed.

Of all the technologies under consideration, battery electric vehicles consume the least energy, making them the benchmark for clean-energy efficiency in the transport sector. Other technologies, such as fuel cells, also have potential. Even internal combustion engines can be carbon neutral if run on synthetic fuel produced with renewable electricity (though they are less energy efficient than electric batteries). Considering the many options available, it is important to explore the various technological paths that can lead to an energy-efficient and climate-friendly transport system.

The electrification of the transport sector brings its own particular challenges. For one, vehicles that run on batteries or fuel cells must be powered with renewable energy to be truly carbon neutral. Furthermore, the manufacture of batteries and power electronics must not exhaust available resources, which would lead to a whole new set of environmental problems. Finally, the creation of public and semi-public charging stations must accompany the expanded use of electric vehicles and be easily accessible to everyone. If electric drivetrain technologies are to catch on, these issues need to be addressed.

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Core results

  1. 1

    Lithium, cobalt, nickel, graphite and platinum are available in sufficient quantities to enable the rapid, worldwide adoption of electric vehicles.

    Proven global reserves in each case greatly exceed forecasted demand, even when factoring in rising demand for these raw materials for other technological applications.

  2. 2

    Temporary supply bottlenecks and price increases are possible, particularly for cobalt and lithium.

    This is predominantly attributable to two factors: First, some new mining sites may not be operational in due time. Second, source countries may not be able to export raw materials in sufficient quantities at all times.

  3. 3

    The extraction of raw materials is inherently associated with environmental and social problems, and the commodities needed for battery technology are no exception in this regard.

    The problems in this area are multifarious and include the high energy consumption of mining operations, acid mine drainage, water conflicts between mining companies and indigenous peoples, and poor working conditions in mines. The artisanal mining in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where most known cobalt reserves are located, is a particularly egregious example of such problems.

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